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Current Affairs

Angkor Wat, located in the heart of Cambodia, has recently earned the prestigious title of the 8th wonder of the world, surpassing Italy’s Pompeii. This UNESCO World Heritage Site is not only the largest religious structure in the world but also a testament to architectural brilliance and cultural significance. Angkor Wat is an expansive temple complex that spans approximately 500 acres and serves as the largest religious monument in the world. Originally constructed in the 12th century by King Suryavarman II, the temple was dedicated to the Hindu deity Vishnu. Over time, it transformed into a major Buddhist temple, reflecting the transition from Hinduism to Buddhism. The site is renowned for its statue of eight-armed Vishnu, revered as a protecting deity by the locals. Angkor Wat’s architectural brilliance is evident in its massive scale, precise symmetry and intricate bas-reliefs. The central temple complex features five lotus-shaped towers representing Mount Meru, a mythical abode of gods in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology. Surrounding its outer walls is a vast moat, adding to the grandeur of this ancient marvel.

In a groundbreaking move, Hanson Robotics and Dictador, a Polish run company, have appointed the world’s first humanoid robot CEO named Mika. This innovative project aims to blend advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning with the unique values of the company. While this development sparks excitement about the potential of AI in leadership roles, it also raises concerns among workers about job security. Dictador, in collaboration with Hanson Robotics, has introduced Mika as the “official face” of the company. Mika utilizes advanced AI and machine learning algorithms to swiftly and accurately process data. However, concerns have been raised about a “significant delay” in Mika’s response time, highlighting the evolving nature of AI technology. David Hanson, CEO of Hanson Robotics, emphasizes the importance of “humanizing” AI to ensure safety and effectiveness. Teaching AI to care about people is seen as a crucial step in bridging the gap between machines and humans. The gap is to create a symbiotic relationship where AI complements human abilities without replacing them entirely.

The 50th Chief Justice of India, DY Chandrachud, took the oath of office on Wednesday. He served as the National Legal Services Authority’s former ex-officio executive chairman while serving as the Supreme Court of India’s senior-most judge (or judge after the Chief Justice). He has also served as the Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court and a Bombay High Court judge. He was schooled at Delhi and Harvard University before practicing law for Sullivan & Cromwell and the Bombay High Court. He is the son of the longest-serving Chief Justice, Y. V. Chandrachud. A judge of the Bombay High Court, he later rose to the position of Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court.

Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus and Alexei I. Ekimov “for the discovery and synthesis of quantum dots”. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2023 rewards the discovery and development of quantum dots, nanoparticles so tiny that their size determines their properties. These smallest components of nanotechnology now spread their light from televisions and LED lamps, and can also guide surgeons when they remove tumour tissue, among many other things. The Nobel Prize amount for 2023 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 11.0 million per full Nobel Prize. Everyone who studies chemistry learns that an element’s properties are governed by how many electrons it has. However, when matter shrinks to nano-dimensions quantum phenomena arise; these are governed by the size of the matter. The Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2023 have succeeded in producing particles so small that their properties are determined by quantum phenomena. The particles, which are called quantum dots, are now of great importance in nanotechnology.

The 2023 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman "for their discoveries concerning base modifications that enabled the development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19" The discoveries by the two Nobel Laureates were critical for developing effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 during the pandemic that began in early 2020. Through their groundbreaking findings, which have fundamentally changed our understanding of how mRNA interacts with our immune system, the laureates contributed to the unprecedented rate of vaccine development during one of the greatest threats to human health in modern times.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2023 was awarded to Jon Fosse, "for his innovative plays and prose which give voice to the unsayable" Jon Fosse was born 1959 in Haugesund on the Norwegian west coast. His immense oeuvre written in Nynorsk and spanning a variety of genres consists of a wealth of plays, novels, poetry collections, essays, children’s books and translations. While he is today one of the most widely performed playwrights in the world, he has also become increasingly recognized for his prose. His debut novel Raudt, svart 1983, as rebellious as it was emotionally raw, broached the theme of suicide and, in many ways, set the tone for his later work. Fosse’s European breakthrough as a dramatist came with Claude Régy’s 1999 Paris production of his play Nokon kjem til å komme (1996; Someone Is Going to Come, 2002). Even in this early piece, with its themes of fearful anticipation and crippling jealousy, Fosse’s singularity is fully evident. In his radical reduction of language and dramatic action, he expresses the most powerful human emotions of anxiety and powerlessness in the simplest everyday terms. It is through this ability to evoke man’s loss of orientation, and how this paradoxically can provide access to a deeper experience close to divinity, that he has come to be regarded as a major innovator in contemporary theatre.

This year’s Laureate in the Economic Sciences, Claudia Goldin, provided the first comprehensive account of women’s earnings and labour market participation through the centuries. Her research reveals the causes of change, as well as the main sources of the remaining gender gap. Women are vastly underrepresented in the global labour market and, when they work, they earn less than men. Claudia Goldin has trawled the archives and collected over 200 years of data from the US, allowing her to demonstrate how and why gender differences in earnings and employment rates have changed over time. Goldin showed that female participation in the labour market did not have an upward trend over this entire period, but instead forms a U-shaped curve. The participation of married women decreased with the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society in the early nineteenth century, but then started to increase with the growth of the service sector in the early twentieth century. Goldin explained this pattern as the result of structural change and evolving social norms regarding women’s responsibilities for home and family. During the twentieth century, women’s education levels continuously increased, and in most high-income countries they are now substantially higher than for men. Goldin demonstrated that access to the contraceptive pill played an important role in accelerating this revolutionary change by offering new opportunities for career planning.

The three Nobel Laureates in Physics 2023 are being recognized for their experiments, which have given humanity new tools for exploring the world of electrons inside atoms and molecules. Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz and Anne L’Huillier have demonstrated a way to create extremely short pulses of light that can be used to measure the rapid processes in which electrons move or change energy. In 1987, Anne L’Huillier discovered that many different overtones of light arose when she transmitted infrared laser light through a noble gas. Each overtone is a light wave with a given number of cycles for each cycle in the laser light. They are caused by the laser light interacting with atoms in the gas; it gives some electrons extra energy that is then emitted as light. Anne L’Huillier has continued to explore this phenomenon, laying the ground for subsequent breakthroughs. In 2001, Pierre Agostini succeeded in producing and investigating a series of consecutive light pulses, in which each pulse lasted just 250 attoseconds. At the same time, Ferenc Krausz was working with another type of experiment, one that made it possible to isolate a single light pulse that lasted 650 attoseconds.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee has decided to award the Nobel Peace Prize for 2023 to Narges Mohammadi for her fight against the oppression of women in Iran and her fight to promote human rights and freedom for all. Her brave struggle has come with tremendous personal costs. Altogether, the regime has arrested her 13 times, convicted her five times, and sentenced her to a total of 31 years in prison and 154 lashes.

CM Bhagwant Singh Mann laid the foundation stone of the Saragarhi Memorial, paying homage to the courageous Sikh warriors who made the ultimate sacrifice during the historic Battle of Saragarhi. In a formal ceremony held in Ferozepur, Punjab, Chief Minister Bhagwant Singh Mann made a significant announcement that marks a profound tribute to the valiant Sikh warriors who gave their lives in the historic Battle of Saragarhi. A state-of-the-art monument, dedicated to commemorating the martyrdom of 21 brave Sikh soldiers, will grace the landscape of Ferozepur, with an ambitious timeline of completion within six months.

Bengaluru, often hailed as nation’s tech capital, has welcomed the India’s first 3D-printed post office. Located in Cambridge Layout near Ulsoor, this post office has set a new benchmark for efficiency, sustainability, and design. The post office, encompassing an area of 1,021 square feet, was swiftly completed in just 43 days – a remarkable departure from the conventional construction period of around 10 months. This architectural marvel was brought to life through a collaboration between Larsen and Toubro, a prominent construction company, and technical guidance from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras. The project, originally slated for completion in September of the previous year, saw its culmination in May 2023 at a cost of Rs 23 lakh.

The Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology (KAIST) is making groundbreaking advancements in aviation with the development of “Pibot,” a humanoid robot designed to fly aircraft using its own dexterity and advanced AI capabilities. Pibot’s ability to manipulate flight instruments, understand complex manuals, and react quickly to emergency situations showcases its potential to transform aviation and other industries.

The triumphant team comprised Jyothi Surekha Vennam, Parneet Kaur, and Aditi Gopichand Swami. In the final round, they showcased an exceptional performance against the Mexican team, consisting of Dafne Quintero, Ana Sofia Hernandez Jeon, and Andrea Becerra. The Indian trio emerged victorious with a score of 235-229, demonstrating their prowess and precision in the sport. In the semi-finals, the Indian trio, seeded second in the qualification round, had knocked out defending champions Colombia 220-216 to enter the title clash. Earlier, the Indian women’s compound team defeated Chinese Taipei and Turkey in the quarter-finals and the pre-quarterfinals, respectively after receiving a bye in the first round. Heading into the Berlin meet, India had won 11 medals – nine silvers and two bronze – at the World Archery Championships.

London-based Indian-origin author Chetna Maroo’s debut novel ‘Western Lane’ is among 13 books to make the cut for the 2023 Booker Prize longlist revealed. Kenya-born Maroo’s novel, set within the context of the British Gujarati milieu, has been praised by the Booker judges for its use of the sport of squash as a metaphor for complex human emotions. It revolves around the story of an 11-year-old girl named Gopi and her bonds with her family. ‘Western Lane’ is a deeply evocative debut about a family grappling with grief, conveyed through crystalline language which reverberates like the sound ‘of a ball hit clean and hard… with a close echo’,” said the Booker Prize judging panel, chaired by twice Booker-shortlisted Canadian novelist Esi Edugyan.

Georgi Gospodinov’s captivating novel, “Time Shelter,” translated by Angela Rodel, has secured the prestigious 2023 International Booker Prize. This remarkable achievement marks the first time a Bulgarian novel has been awarded this renowned literary honor.

In August 2021, Wing Commander Deepika Mishra was assigned the task of carrying out Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief operations following flash floods in northern Madhya Pradesh. Despite adverse weather conditions, including strong winds and the approaching night, she was the sole individual to arrive at the disaster site that same evening. Her courageous actions and dedication to duty helped rescue 47 individuals, and as a result, she became the first female Air Force officer to be honored with a gallantry award, the Vayu Seva Medal for gallantry, which she received at an investiture ceremony in New Delhi from Air Chief Marshal VR Chaudhari.

Justice Aparesh Kumar Singh has been chosen to succeed Justice Jaswant Singh, who just retired, as the Chief Justice of the Tripura High Court. In accordance with the authority granted by Article 217 of the Indian Constitution, the President appointed Justice Aparesh Kumar Singh, a judge at the Jharkhand High Court, to assume the role of Chief Justice of the Tripura High Court with effect from the date he takes charge of the office, according to a notification from the Department of Justice in the Law Ministry. Justice Singh began his profession as an advocate in 1990. He was born on July 7, 1965.

Denmark inaugurates a project to store carbon dioxide 1,800 metres beneath the North Sea, the first country in the world to bury CO2 imported from abroad.The CO2 graveyard, where the carbon is injected to prevent further warming of the atmosphere, is on the site of an old oil field. Led by British chemical giant Ineos and German oil company Wintershall Dea, the “Greensand” project is expected to store up to eight million tonnes of CO2 per year by 2030.

The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is the country’s highest award in the field of cinema. The 2023 winners were revealed by the Directorate of Film Festivals. Mumbai will host the 2023 Dadasaheb Phalke International Film Festival ceremony. Alia Bhatt and Ranbir Kapoor won the Best Actor and Best Actress awards at the Dadasaheb Phalke International Film Festival Awards. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India’s highest award in the field of cinema. It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals, an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The recipient is honoured for their “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema” and is selected by a committee consisting of eminent personalities from the Indian film industry.

Equatorial Guinea has appointed Manuela Roka Botey as Prime Minister. She became the first woman in the country to hold the position.


Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva took office for a third term as Brazil’s president, vowing to fight for the poor and the environment and “rebuild the country” after far-right leader Jair Bolsonaro’s divisive administration


Indian-origin Leo Varadkar has returned for a second term as Ireland’s Prime Minister as part of a job-sharing deal made by the country’s centrist coalition government.


Marshal PV Iyer (Retd.) has launched his book ‘Fit At Any Age’ at India International Centre, New Delhi.


American executive Cindy Hook has been appointed as the inaugural CEO of the organising committee for the 2032 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brisbane.


PT Usha was elected to become the president of the Indian Olympics Association (IOA). The Minister of Law and Justice of India announced on Twitter to congratulate the legendary Indian athletes


Canara Bank won the ‘Banker’s Bank of the Year Award 2022’’ for India segment at the Global Banking Summit held in London. Bank Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, LV Prabhakar received the award from the organizers.


INS Mormugao is the second vessel of the Indian Navy’s stealth guided-missile destroyers of the Visakhapatnam class. It was launched on September 17, 2016, and is being built by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL).

New Chief Justice of India

Senior-most Supreme Court judge and Chief Justice of India-designate Dhananjaya Y Chandrachud is all set to become the 50th head of the Indian judiciary when President Draupadi Murmu would administer the oath of office to him at Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court (SC) are appointed by the President under clause (2) of Article 124 of the Constitution. The Supreme Court collegium is headed by the Chief Justice of India and comprises four other senior most judges of the court. The collegium system is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court (Judges Cases), and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.

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